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Prikazivanje sadržaja sa najviše reputacije od 17.01.2020. u svim oblastima

  1. 12 poena
    I dođe i to na red, napravih svoj prvi amp pa se malo pohvalim i zahvalim. Da ne beše dragog nam @Zen Moda i njegovog abnormalnog strpljenja na sva moja pitanja ništa ne bi uradio, moram to da naglasim! Kažu nema glupih pitanja...mada ne bi bio siguran u to. Takođe i mog komšije koji je bio tu kad ne bi imao aparturu da nešto uradim kako treba ili kad jednostavno ne bi znao, @Ја sam sam Evo i malo fotografija, potrudiću se da idu hronološki koliko može. Bilo je tu nekih preliminarnih pozicija, svašta nešto: Čak i bez argumentata sa moje strane Na kraju nisam uspeo da nađem aluminijumske L profile koji bi pasali i okrenuo tranzistore na drugu stranu: Na kraju šasija je popunjena ovako: U kutiji: ozadi: Pozadina na bušenju: Stigao i soft start iz Kine. Interesantno jako je kvalitetan, a dobio sam i daljinski. Iznenadili me braća Kinezi! Final unutrašnjosti. Ostalo je samo da stavim bolje žice na izvodima za zvučnike. Drugar iz ZG mi je poslao parče AntiCables žice pa će to najverovatnije tu ići. Ne znam koliko ću biti pristrasan ali moram reći da zvuči fantastično! Ne znam koliko je merodavno na snimku, ali upotpunjuje doživljaj. Izvint'e na neredu, tako je kad imate malo, što bi Zen rekao, čedovište. Iz Mac-a u Topping D10 pa direktno u M2 dok ne dođe Pumpkin. Zvučnici su Dali Concept 2 sa malo nadograđenim skretnicama Mudorfima.
  2. 9 poena
    Vix

    Zanimljive i smesne slike

  3. 9 poena
    mutayu

    Zvucne kutije Iskra OZ-40

    Evo ih , pola godine kasnije, rade kao Singerica. Cist zvuk full rangera potpomognut bass helperima i ponekad super tweeterima, nestao u prostoru, kao i originalne ali otvorene Iskrine kutije. Traze, kao sto Zen rece, podesavanje polozaja FR po dubini. U suprotnom nisu u fazi sa basim pa zvuce kao rasrafljen stari radio. Basa ima vise nego dovoljno ali traze polozaj pota od bar 9 sati.
  4. 9 poena
    Kolegione BANAT fala za šemu tako nešto sam i mislio da sastavim sa 6AN8A na ulazu, tako sam povezao grejanje pa me mrzelo da menjam ali nađoh ECC85 pa sam pustio sokoćalo u rad malo su drugačije vrednosti otpornika, imam oko 280V bateriju i turio sam zenerice u g2 što se tiče šasije nije plek nego plexy ne mogu da razmišljam dal će nešto da pipa masu ili neće, bolji bi bio pertinaks al teško se nalazi i ružan je, još ne videh lep crn gladak a da je debši od 1m pošto je proradio iz prve evo jedno parče muzike
  5. 8 poena
    ninja

    Zanimljive i smesne slike

  6. 8 poena
    Zen Mod

    ZM, random zanimacije

    i jos nesto , posle 27 dana čamenja na našoj vajnoj Carini bitno da su naplatili PDV , dobro da mi i ležarinu nisu
  7. 8 poena
    Aleks_00

    3D Stampanje

    Pozdrav kolege, Posedujem 3D stampac, i voljan sam kolegama sa foruma da stampam za cenu materijala. Kome sta treba moze da nadje fajlove na sajtu https://www.thingiverse.com/ potpuno su free.
  8. 7 poena
    ManicP

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    Investicioni ciklus... ...u merak
  9. 7 poena
    Zen Mod

    ZM, random zanimacije

  10. 7 poena
    Zen Mod

    ZM, random zanimacije

    ne mogoh da odolim neki dan 20E , dostavljeno proverio ispravnost , oprasio , prva ruka Dammar-a
  11. 6 poena
    paja959

    Novopridosle skalamerije

  12. 6 poena
    A Crni kude je? Na njega kad Nole razguzi ovog njegovog deluje terapeutski. Po nekoliko dana nema potrebu da piše.
  13. 6 poena
    Vix

    Čime se zanimam... (ovih dana )

  14. 6 poena
    Mentok

    Čime se zanimam... (ovih dana )

    In with the.... also OLD Tražio čovek da mu raskopam potpuno ispravni Hot Rod deluxe, a kad sam video kolko opampa ima unutra nije da ga krivim Red je da se od "lampaškog" pojačala napravi LAMPAŠKO pojačalo
  15. 6 poena
    Woland

    Kafanica . . .

    ..
  16. 5 poena
    Mikorist

    Bin Serbona (Serbian made drivers/speakers)

    Brate da mi trebaju zvučnici sa drvenim pampurom - kupio bi Sonido pre
  17. 5 poena
    Aleks

    Tranzistori vs. Lampe, Alan Shaw

    Da je vladd biti lako, vladd bi bio svako Vladd je hteo jednostavno da kaže da jednostavne stvari, koje nemaju dovoljno jednostavnosti i jednostavno komplikuju jednostavnost, te su time jednostvno komplikovane, jednostavno ne mogu da se pojednostavljivanjem jednostavno objasne jednostavno, već je jednostavno potrebno da, kada komplikovanost koja jednostavno nije jednostavna već jednostavno komplikovana, ne može da se jednostavno objasni a da se jednostavno ne komplikuje komplikovanim objašnjenjem, jer jednostavno, nije dovoljno jednostavna.
  18. 5 poena
    Aoxomoxoa

    The GRATEFUL DEAD story

    Inductees: Tom Constanten (keyboards; born March 19, 1944), Jerry Garcia (guitar, vocals; born August 1, 1942, died August 9, 1995), Donna Godchaux (vocals; born August 22, 1945), Keith Godchaux (keyboards; born July 14, 1948, died July 21, 1980), Mickey Hart (drums, percussion; born September 11, 1943), Robert Hunter (lyricist; born June 23, 1941), Bill Kreutzmann (drums; born April 7, 1946), Phil Lesh (bass, vocals; born March 15, 1940), Ron “Pigpen” McKernan (keyboards, harmonica, vocals; born September 8, 1945, died March 8, 1973), Brent Mydland (keyboards, vocals; born October 21, 1952, died July 26, 1990), Bob Weir (guitar, vocals; born October 16, 1947), Vince Welnick(keyboards; born February 22, 1951, died June 2, 2006). KRATAK ISTORIJAT Grateful Dead i cela San Francisco scena,ukljucujuci Jefferson Airplane,Quicksilver Messenger Service,Big Brother and the Holding Company,Country Joe and the Fish,podigla je svest rok publike,vodeci ih ka viziji muzike u kojoj su albumi bili vazniji od singlova,a koncerti postali maratonska izvodjenja. Grupa je imala korene u bluzu.Iz dzez sveta,Grateful Dead se trudio da se priblizi muzici koja obiluje improvizacijama.Od psihodelicne kulture-posebno Ken Kessey’s Acid Tests,ciji su bili deo-Dead su postal svesni beskonacne mogucnosti izrazavanja,pogotovu kada masta dobije odresene ruke.Predvodjeni Garsijom na gitari,udubili bi se u bluz,folk,dzez r&b satima.Kompozicija koja daje pecat grupi ,”Dark Star”,je sluzila kao osnova za njihovo eksperimentalno dzemovanje.Izveli su je preko 200 puta,I nikada na isti nacin,gde ih je Garsijina gitara vodila u istrazivanja jos neispitanih teritorija. Garsija je primetio:”Oni ce me slediti niz svaku mracnu ulicu.Ponekad postoji svetlo na kraju tunela,a ponekad postoji tamna rupa.Poenta jenema avanture u muzici,osim ako ster spremni da rizikujete”. Karijera Grateful Dead moze se sagledati iz nekoliko faza.Tokom druge polovine sezdesetih,oni su psihodelicni rok bend cija su muzika I nacin zivota bili sinonim za San Francisco scenu.Sedamdesetih su se vratili korenima I stilu pisanja pesama,istovremeno zadrzavajuci poentu njihovih koncerata-dugackim dzemovanjem.Osamdesetih su postali “touring juggernaut”,atraktivni nomadi praceni Deadheads-ima sa koncerta na concert.Komercijalni vrhunac je dosao 1987.g. kada je “Touch of Grey” postao Top 10 hit,I dodatno ubrzao priliv mladjih fanova.Pojavili su se na Forbsovoj listi top zarada kao zabavljaci,i prvih nekoliko godina devedesetih bili najplacenija concert atrakcija u U.S. Smrt Garsije 1995.g.naglo je stavio tacku na grupu Grateful Dead,iako se nekoliko clanova regrupisalo kao The Other Ones,The Dead and Furthur. KORENI Koreni Grateful Dead nas vode u rane sezdesete I malu zajednicu knjizevnosti i muzike pro-hipi orijentisane u Palo Alto,Kalifornija,gde je Garsija gravitirao.U tom miljeu sprijateljio se sa Robert Hanterom,koji ce postati njegov dozivotni partner u pisanju tekstova,I Pigpen,ozbiljni sledbenik bluza i soula,koji je svirao klavijature I harmoniku.Mladi gitarista Bob Weir se prikljucio postavi,koja se okupljala u “Dana Morgan’s Music Store” u Palo Altu(gde je Garsija davao casove gitare). Godine 1964 Garcia,Weir i McKernan formiraju grupu Mother McCree’s Uptown Jug Champions,gitarsku grupu koja svira bluz,folk i god-time muziku.Veci deo ranog (pozajmljenog)repertoara Grateful Dead,ukljucujuci “Good Morning Little School Girl” I “Viola Lee Blues” je iz tog vremena.Bila je sugestija Pigpena(inspirisana novim popularnim bendom iz Engleske,The Rolling Stones) da pojacaju I prosire svoj zvuk.Pridodali su ritam sekciju:bubnjara Bill Kreutzmann-a(koga je Garsija znao iz muzicke prodavnice) i Phil Lesh-a,muzickog genija koji je proucavao dzez,klasiku I avangardu.Kako pre toga nikada nije svirao bas gitaru,Lesh je iskoristio priliku da se prikljuci grupi,I brzo savladao ovaj instrument.”Znao sam da se nesto veliko desava,nesto vece od svega”. Phil Lesh(25) prekinuo je svoj zaludan posao u posti,isteran jer je nosio kosu dovoljno dugu da dotakne vrhove usiju,i sa prijateljem se preselio u 1130 Haight Street,pocetkom 1965.g.Njegov san je bio da postane kompozitor ili sprovodnik avangardne muzike.Dane je provodio lutajuci ulicama oko raskrsnice Haight i Asbury,dela San Franciska nastanjen radnickom klasom ,na ivici da postane Haight-Ashbury,sinonim sezdesetih. U popodnevnim casovima,kada bi se probudio,Lesh bi hodao nekoliko blokova od njegove kuce da kupi krofne,a muzika je bila svuda oko njega.Sa jednog prozora mogao je cuti AM radio I hit nedelje “Downtown” ili “This Diamond Ring”;sa sprata ispod cuo se Bob Dylan I pesma “Subterranean Homesick Blues”;u sledecem bloku cuo je odlomke Baha ili Mocarta sa klasicne stanice KDFC;iza ugla se cuo dzez od Dejvisa ili Koltrejna;zatim malo R&B od Rej Carlsa. “Svaka vrsta ljudi razlicitih generacija je ovde zivela,I kada prodjete pored njihovih kuca vetar bi doneo svaku vrstu muzike”. To je bio nagovestaj gde bi Lesh uskoro mogao poci. Maja 1965.g. bend su cinili Garcia,Weir,Lesh,McKernan I Kreutzmann.Nazvali su se Warlocks,I preuzeli vise elektricni pristup.Pola godine kasnije,shvatili su da postoji druga grupa istog naziva. NAZIV GRUPE Zvanicna prica o grupi Grateful Dead (kako je Garcia ispricao u knjizi “Playing in the Band”),glasi:stajali smo okolo u krajnjem ocajanju u kuci Phila(Lesh) u Palo Altu pokusavajuci da smislimo ime za grupu.Bio je tu ogroman recnik,velika monolitna stvar,i ja sam ga samo otvorio.Velikim crnim slovima pisalo je Grateful Dead.To je blokiralo moj um. Koliko se cesto fraza Grateful Dead pojavljuje u prosecnom recniku?Ali ispostavilo se da Garcia posle svega nije halucinirao.U “Funk&Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore,Mythology and Legend”,nailazimo na stranu sa “GRATEFUL DEAD” pisano velikim slovima.Ispod je objasnjenje da je “grateful dead” motiv koji figurira u mnogim narodnim pricama. Dalja istrazivanja su otkriva retku knjigu folklora pod nazivom “Grateful Dead” od G.H.Geroulda(1908).U njoj je tipicna grateful-dead prica: Graf Willekin von Montabour je saznao da je lepa I bogata devojka obecala svoju ruku vitezu koji osvoji turnir koji je ona organizovala.Kada je dosao do mesta gde se odrzavao turnir,nasao je smestaj u jednoj kuci ,pod uslovom da plati dugove mrtvog coveka,koji je lezao u konjskoj balegi.Dirnut ovom pricom,Gaf je platio sedamdeset maraka,skoro sav novac koji je imao,da otkupi dugove i omoguci odgovarajucu sahranu.U praskozorje turnira,od stranca viteza,dobija divnog konja pod uslovom da dele sve sto osvoji.On je uspeo da pobedi sve ostale takmicare i osvoji devojku.Druge bracne noci,stranac je usao u njegovu sobu i zatrazio udeo u bracnim pravima.Nudeci umesto toga svu svoju imovinu,junak je posao iz sobe u suzama,kada ga je stranac pozvao nazad i objasnio da je on duh(po svoj prilici zahvalan) smrti,a zatim nestao. FENOMEN Kako je, u toku jedne godine, lokalni bend iz Severne Karoline postao jedan od najvaznijih muzickih fenomena nastalih sezdesetih godina u San Francisku?Postoje ti centri snage i moci,kao Machu Picchu,Stonehenge,Everest,i mesto kao ovo,centar Haigh i Ashbury. U stvari,Grateful Dead nisu rodjeni u Haight-Ashbury.Nastali su tridesetak milja na jugu-Palo Alto-u,gde je mesavina kulture uvodila osnivace benda u zrelost.Univerzitet Stanford,glavni centar za istrazivanje oruzja Hladnog Rata,ispunjava okolinu vrednostima Eisenhower ere.Kada njihova deca pocnu da sazrevaju,kreiraju svoj identitet oblaceci se kao farmer(u farmerkama) I slusajuci jednostavnu muziku sviranu na drvenim instrumentima I pevajuci zalosne narodne pesme.Folk muzika je zamenjivala dzez u kafanama koje su iznikle u boemskim studentskim oblastima u Palo Altu(i prakticno svakom drugom koledzu u Americi) tokom posleratnih godina.The Kingston Trio poceo je u PaloAltu.Takodje I Joan Baez,kraljica folka ranih sezdesetih. I Jerry Garcia je poceo tamo.Sin lidera velikog benda(koji ga je nazvao po Jerome Kernu(kompozitoru mjuzikla Show Boat ),preselio se u Palo Altu,(posle eskiviranja vojske) jer je znao devojku iz te oblasti.Nasao je posao ucitelja bendza i gitare u prodavnici instrumenata.Garcia se igrao sa R&R kao tinejdzer u San Francisku(I cak svirao elektricnu gitaru u hitu Bobby Freeman-a iz 1958.g.”Do You Want to Dance”),ali je postao opsednut tradicionalnom akusticnom muzikom u Palo Altu.Nekoliko godina pre nego sto se spojio sa Weir-om i McKernan-om,razvio je reputaciju I ugled medju muzicarima u severnoj Kaliforniji za svoj rad u nekoliko bendova:jedan stari farmerski trio,the Sleepy Hollow Hog Stompers(sa gitaristom Marshall Leicester i violinistom Dick Arnold), i bluegrass trio,the Wildwood Boys(sa gitaristom David Nelsonom I Robert Hanterom,koji ce se ujediniti sa Garsijom kao tekstopisac Grateful Dead). Garcia je razvijao svoju muzicku mistiku.Bio je veoma napredovao u to vreme,u odnosu na sve ostale.Ljudi su mislili da je arogantan,ali on to nije bio.U knjizari ,onako kosmat,delovao je mracno I nabusito,prebirao je po 12-string gitari,dosta mirno,ali napetog pogleda.Svirao je tiho,jedva da se mogao cuti,ali je bilo vrlo napeto,vrlo zanosno.Imao je neku vrstu aure.Bio je komplikovan individualac:momak sa veoma jakom zeljom da pronadje sta je to sto zeli da uradi,cak iako nije znao sta je to.Imao je umetnicku tvrdoglavost o pronalazenju svega sto bi ispalo iz njegove vizije I prilepilo bi se za nju. Knjizara u kojoj je obitavao Garsija bila je skromna prodavnica koju je vodio aktivista levicar Roy Kepler.Tu je bio otvoren proctor sa stolovimasediste knjizevno-muzicke ose koja je Palo Altu dala mnogo svojih osobenih licnosti.Ken Kesei,romanopisac i LSD-head,preselio se u Palo Altu,radeci kao bolnicar u ludnici,te je napisao roman iz svog iskustva:â€Let iznad kukavicijeg gnezdaâ€. Garcia I njegovi istomisljenici okupljali su se skoro svakog dana u knjizari.Nocu su svirali u klubovima kao sto je Top of the Tangent I Boar’s Head ,oba na drugom spratu knjizare.Mogli su da sviraju jednu pesmu celu noc,i nikad nisu znali kada da se zaustave. Bob Weir,bogat klinac sirokih pogleda,sa ozbiljnom,ali nedijagnostikovanom disleksijom,proteran je iz niza privatnih akademija sirom Pensilvanije,I zavrsio u Menlo-Atherton high-school,blizu PaloAlta 1964.g.Voleo je muziku,voleo je da svira,svirao je gitaru vrlo dobro.Bio je lepuskast,devojke su se lepile za njega,I on je bio srecan sa njima.Jednog dana posle skole usunjao se u twenty-one-and over klub da bi video grupu koju je cuo na novoj ploci:the Jim Kweskin Jug Band,ansambl mladih ljudi koji su svirali fanki,bluz I dzez,na lokalnim instrumentima kao sto su washboards,kazoos I jugs,kao I tradicionalnim gitarama I bendzu. Sutradan Bob je usao u knjizaru gde je Garcia u svom malom odeljenju poducavao(kada ne bi radio,uvek bi vezbao).”Odlucio sam sinoc da pocnemo kao jug band”.Garcija je rekao;”Bez ijede naznake-o,boze ,dobro,ja sam za”. I tako su Grateful Dead poceli. *jug band-miks tradicionalnih I rucno pravljenih instrumenata John Sebastian,pevac i pisac pesama je rekao da se svest stalno menja,a ljudi koji su bili u kasnim tinejdzerskim i ranim dvadesetim pocetkom 1960.g.,nasli su da su jug bands neverovatno moderni.Poceo je kao profesionalac(pod imenom John Benson) u Njujorku u grupi Even Dozen Jug Band(gde je svirao mandolin David Grisman,sa kojim je Garcia kasnije snimio nekoliko albuma sa tradicionalnim materijalom),formirao Lovin’ Spoonful kao elektricni jug band. Znacajne stvari ce se dogoditi I promeniti za Garsiju,Veira I Mekkernana,koji su ipak bili mladi I Amerikanci.Krajem 1964.g. Bitlsi i Stonsi oslobodili su rok’n’rol iz prostorija Brill Buildinga i oziveli ga cetiri bloka dalje,upravo na Edovoj bini.Bitlsi i Stonsi su ih veoma uznemirili.Dok su radili u knjizari ,svi ti sjajni elektricni instrumenti su ih mamili.Sin vlasnika knjizare je rekao:”Hej,slusajte,vi zelite da postanete rok’n’rol grupa?Ja cu vam pozajmiti instrumente, ako ja mogu da sviram bas”. Dobili su bubnjara kog su najbolje znali:Bill Kreutzmann-a koji je svirao u lokalnom R&B bendu,I poducavao u muzickoj prodavnici nedaleko od Garsije i Veira.Krupan,miran covek,koji je povezan sa Lenny in of Mice and Man,bio je ozenjen sa osamnaest godina,dok je bio u srednjoj skoli,dok je njegovo muziciranje bilo vatreno i divlje.Garsija je rekao da on njega nista nerazume dok govori,ali da je njegovo muziciranje bilo svuda oko njega. Momci su izabrali mracno novo ime-the Warlocks(koje ce kasnije biti rani naziv za grupu the Velvet Underground).Lesh se pridruzio maja 1965.g.,posle prvog seta u piceriji u Menlo Parku,kojoj je Lesh prisustvovao,naduvan,I toliko raspolozen da je igrao sam ispred grupe.Garsija ga je odveo u ugao I rekao mu:â€hej,covece,t ices biti basista u benduâ€.Takav je bio Garsija,intuitivan,njegova vera u Lesove muzicke sposobnosti,I njegov prezir prema sinu vlasnika prodavnice(Garsija (uzeo opremu na kredit). U svojoj prvoj godini zajedno,Warlocks su svirali puno starih bluz numera,ali elektrificiranih,kao sto su “I’m a king bee” i “Big Boss Man”,ali sui h mesali sa folk pesmama :”I know you rider”,”Viola Lee Blues” i “Stealin’”.Muzicki,njihove interpretacije su uvek bile ekscentricne-Garsijin solo nikada nije bio cist bluz,ali je ukorenjen u dijatonskim skalama bluegrass-a,dok je Lesh ,vidjen kao avangardista,priblizio sviranje basa nalik dzez trubi,koju je povremeno svirao.Grupa je bila mesavina filozofije vezane za prirodu,umetnost,ukus,sa naglaskom na lepotu. Sve sto su uradili bila je demonstracija raznih ukrstanja:imali su klasicnu,dzez I avangardnu muziku sa Lesom;rok ‘n’ rol ,bluegrass I folk sa Garsijom;rok ‘n’ rol I folk sa Bobijem,bluz I R&B sa Pigpenom;dzez I rok ‘n’ rol sa Bilijem.Prva pesma koju su uradili je bila stara narodna pesma “I Know You Rider”,a oni su je izveli u rok maniru.Zatim su uzeli “Viola Lee Blues” i odsvirali u elektricnoj rok verziji.Bobi je uobicavao da to izvodjenje nazove elektricni Dixieland,a Lesh kao elektricnu kamernu muziku. Kao I Bitlsi u Hamburgu,Warlocks se formirao kao grupa,kada su nasli stalan posao u jednom mestu,I morali da sviraju iz noci u noc.Za sest nedelja pocetkom 1965.g. grupa je svirala pet cetrdesetpetominutnih setova(sa petnaest minutnom pauzom),po veceri,pet dana nedeljno,u klubu po imenu “Room in Belmont”.Bend bi svirao jednu pesmu cetrdesetpet minuta-“Midnight Hour”(Wilson Pickett).To su pozajmili od Koltrejna.Lesh im je pustao Koltrejna I govorio im kako on uzme jedan akord,a onda se igra sa njim.Rekao bi im;”Mozemo to I mi”. Tu su Warlocks pronasli svoj stil kao grupa,ali je poceo njihov dugotrajna borba sa unutrasnjim glasovima.Oni su zaronili u vrtlog culture LSD-a.U pocetku,clanovi benda su imali nacelo sviranja gde su pusenje trave I pice upraznjavali samo van scene.Uskoro,oni su poceli da preplicu svoj kreativni zivot sa psihoaktivnim zivotom. Dobijena muzika je najefikasnija za slusaoce koji su u istom takvom izmenjenom stanju. FBI Dok mnogi mladji citaoci nisu ni culi za muziku grupe Grateful Dead,verovatno postoji nekoliko njih koji su culi za njih zbog legendarnih I kontroverznih radnji. U korenu grupe je pre svega pevac/kompozitor Jerry Garcia.Nakon godina borbe od heroinske zavisnosti,Garcia je umro od srcanog udara 1995.g. dok je boravio u rehabilitacionom centru droge u San Francisku. Te,1960-te godine,posebno u San Francisku(cuveni “Summer of Love”),nije bila nikakva tajna da je FBI bio zabrinut za uticaj koji su takve rok grupe,povezane sa drogom I kontroverzama,imale na omladinu.Grateful Dead i Jefferson Airplane zajedno,bile su dve takve grupe koje je FBI nameravao da proganja. U dobijanju tajnih podataka koji su se ticali San Francisco’s Summer of Love,AB7 News objavio je kako John Edgar Hoover(prvi director FBI) ulaze veliki napor u razotkrivanju navodne umesanosti obe grupe u poslovima sa drogom(LSD). Tokom godina,kriticari su optuzivali Huvera I njegov I-tim da,koristeci FBI,maltretiraju I progone disidente I aktiviste,da gomilaju tajna dosijea o politickim liderima,i da prikupljaju dokaze nelegalnim metodama. Prema izvestaju I-tima,Grace Slick,pevacica grupe Jefferson Airplane, rekla je ABC7 News da nije imala pojma da je FBI prati,njuskajuci po njenoj proslosti,ukljucujuci njene skolske dane. Objavljen FBI dosije o Grateful dead I Jefferson Airplane ,navodnoj povezanosti sa LSD,govori o potencijalnoj pretnji po unutrasnju bezbednost,navodeci da je LSD poreklom iz San Franciska,a povezan sa rok grupom Grateful Dead. Ideja da Grateful Dead igra dominantnu ulogu u LSD pokretu u Americi sezdesetih godina,da je u biznisu sa drogom i da je imala negativan efekat na kulturu mladih toga vremena,tumacena je kao smesna,te da je FBI ukljucen u zaveri protiv grupe. Jack Casady iz grupe Jefferson Airplane,je rekao da ,kad god bi nastupali uzivo,neke senke bi se pojavile u publici:”Culi smo za ta desavanja,ljudi bi uzimali filmove,posmatrali,pravili beleske,slike.” Dok mnogi clanovi i fanovi rok grupa kao sto je Grateful Dead smatraju da je paznja FBI prema njima neka vrsta zavere,prema fajlu pod nazivom “The Grateful Dead”,koji je dostupan na FBI vebsajtu,grupa je navodno kupovala velike kolicine droge.Iako je mnogo imformacija u fajlu precrtano markerom,FBI izvestaj se bazira na opasnim drogama I organizovanom kriminalu. Zakljucak FBI “The Grateful Dead” fajla glasi:” LSD je potekao iz San FRanciska,Kalifornija,preko poznate rok grupe Grateful Dead.O grupi je dobro upoznata i DEA,San Francisco”. FBI agenti bi se otvoreno pojavljivali na koncertima Grateful Dead I Jefferson Airplane toliko cesto da postoji prica da su ponekad pili svoja pica pomesana sa LSD. Kako je Paul Kantner iz Jefferson Airplane priznao:”Nasa cela generacija je izbegla koristeci stvari koje nije smela.Mi smo krsili zakon svakog dana”. RANI ALBUMI Njihov istoimeni prvi album snimljen za tri dana,protrcao je kroz blues I bluegrass repertoar sa brzinom I energijom.”Anthem of the Sun”(1968) bilo je njihovo tesko shvatljivo psihodelicn,kvazi-simfonijsko remek delo.”Aoxomoxoa” je bilo jos jedno vrlo eksperimentalno delo.Kako god dobri ovi rani albumi bili,oni nisu mogli da prikazu grupu u najboljem svetlu-na konceru.”Live/Dead” je kompilacija koncerta u San Francisku izmedju 26.januara I 2.marta 1969.g. i vrhunac njihove karijere.U svetlu sezdesetih I spore propasti San Francisco scene,Grateful Dead su se okrenuli vise akusticnom stilu na “Workingman’s Dead” œ I “American Beauty”(oba iz 1970).Oba su folk orijentisana,veci deo materijala su napisali Garcia I Hanter.Pod uticajem su akusticne,harmonijski vodjene muzike(Crosby,Stills,Nash&Young su ih usmeravali da harmonizuju). “Aoxomoxoa” je treci album grupe,realizovan juna 1969.g. Omot je dizajnirao Rick Griffin,poznat po svojim psihodelicnim posterima za Avalon Ballroom I Filmore West u San Francisku tokom kasnih sedzdesetih.Garcia ga je sreo u bekstejdzu na jednom od koncerata grupe.Grateful Dead je angazovao Grifina I rekla mu da moze da dizajnira bilo sta da zamisli,dajuci mu potpunu umetnicku slobodu.Bili su ubedjeni da je dosao sa necim sto ce im se dopasti,na osnovu njihove ljubavi prema posterima. Pored njegovih postera I omota albuma,najpoznatiji je po dizajniranju zaglavlja muzickog magazina “Rolling Stone”.Umro je u saobracajnoj nesreci na motoru 1991.g. Naziv albuma je palindrome koji je kreirao Griffin I tekstopisac Robert Hunter.Prema memoarima menadzera Rock Scully-a(“Living with the Dead”),naslov se izgovara “ox-oh-mox-oh-ah”-ili po nasem(bar kako sam cuo kako Lesh izgovara)¦aksamoksa... Ida Griffin,Rikova supruga,omot za Aoxomoxoa je sufer raj sunca,plavog neba I zivota koji raste svuda oko nas.to je bilo vreme kada se nasa druga cerka rodila.Grobna lobanja i ukrstene kosti predstavljaju zivot I smrt u krugu sunca,raj,rajski vrt i svest planete Zemlje.Rick bi rekao da je ceo dizajn bio “plemenski”.Slova su bazirana na starom engleskom stilu koji tece ka likvidnim ivicama,kao uticaj vode I okeana koji su imali uticaj na Rika. Otac Courtney Love,Hank Harrison,bio je on-again,off-again menadzer svacijeg omiljenog hipi benda kasnih sezdesetih.Zadnji ompt ploce slika grupe na padini negde u okrugu Marin.Tu je Pigpen sa sesirom,rasiren ispred,a desno,u prvom redu je petogodisnja Courtney Love.Bob Weir je odmah iza nje,verovatno prepoznajete Garsiju u trecem redu,na levoj strain fotografije,iza devojke levo od Pigpena.Tu su sva trojica-Phill Lesh,Tom Constanten,Bill Kreutzmann,neciji konj. KONCERTI Izabrati I ocenjivati izbor esecijalnih emisija grupe Grateful Dead je nezahvalan posao.U stvari postoji samo jedan definitivan spisak njihovih najvecih koncerata-ona ukljucuje svaki sou,u svakoj postavi,od Warlocks do 1995,kada je Garsija preminuo. Ova lista nije lose mesto za pocetak,ukoliko niste vec duboko u prici.Vise od 40 sati kljucnih izvodjenja arhivsih izdanja.Ako nemate nijedan zivi nastup u svojoj kolekciji,bicete zadovoljni ovim izborom. The Matrix,San Francisco,December 1st,1966 Krajem 1966.g.,vec vise od godinu dana postojanja,Grateful Dead su jos uvek u ranoj fazi njihove psihodelije:acid-dens bend lutaju u dzemovanju,ali tek pocinju da pisu, i uglavnom se oslanjaju na folk I bluz.Ova tri seta u Matrix-u(Klub je osnovao Martin Balin(Jefferson Airplane)),predstavio je originalni kvintet,pun zivotne radosti,svirajuci rane originale poput “Alice D.Nillionaire”,preko R&B “Big Boy Pete”,do tradicionalnih “I Know You Rider” I “Me and My Uncle”,I vatreno odsvirane “New Minglewood Blues” gitariste Bob Weir-a “Dobro dosli na drugo vece konfuzije I visoko-frekventne stimulacije”,objavljuje Jerry Garcia u prvom setu.Dugo cudno putovanje je bilo na putu. Winterland,San Francisco,March 18th,1967 Warner Bros.Records je objavio njihov prvi album “The Grateful Dead”-zvucno slab,osakacena verzija njihovih nastupa-17.marta 1967.g.Te veceri,kao I sledece opet,Dead su bili predgrupa Chuck Berry-a u Winterland-u,svirajuci vecinu materijala sa ploce druge veceri sa mnogo vise snage I dosta prostora za Garsiju da svira dugo na gitari.Njegov spoj folk gitare I bluegrass lakoce,dinamicno je izrazen u “Cream Puff War”(surovo bleda nap loci u trajanju od dva minuta),”Dancing in the Street”,I Dead’s zastitni znak “Viola Lee Blues”. Dance Hall,Rio Nido,California,September 3rd,1967 Vreme je elasticnijeg koncepta na sceni-pesma se zavrsavala samo ako se svaka mogucnost ugradjivanja u strukturu izgubi u improvizaciji.Lesh je mislio da je 31 minut izvodjenja “In the Midnight Hour” dovoljno-veci deo vremena prepusten Garsiji i organist Pigpenu-dovoljno da pesmu ukljuci u njegovu antologiju(1977) “Fallout from the Phil Zone”.”Viola Lee Blues” je epska,surovo hipnoticka pesma,I traje dva puta duze nego na prvom albumu(u originalu 10:09). Duga “Aligator” sa albuma “Anthem of the sun” bila je buduci dokaz za ideju dance muzike na albumu-kombinacija acida,oslobodjenog ritma I bez straha. Bili su na svom putu. Carousel Ballroom,San Francisco,February 14th,1968 “Anthem of the Sunâ€,drugi album grupe,mogao bi biti najautenticniji muzicki document San Francisco renesanse:jedinstveno psihodelicno istrazivanje I istinski oslobodjen rok ‘n’ rol;kontinuirana voznja ka prosvetljenju preko studijske alhemije i dokazane specijalnosti zivog izvodjenja.Delovi ovog koncerta su korisceni na albumu.Beztezinso ushicenje pesmom “Dark Star”-snimljenoj u studiju predhodne godine,a objavljena kao singl aprila 1968.g.-vec se pretvorila u cvet,nastavljajuci sa fanki “China Cat Sunflove” i ritmicnoj “The Eleven”.Druga polovina koncerta ukljucila je sve pesme sa “Anthem of the Sun” uzivo. Dream Bowl,Vallejo,California,February 22nd,1969 Ovaj concert,uoci dugog vikenda u Fillmore West koji je zabelezen na “Live/Dead” iz 1969,g., je prelep zapis grupe; za vreme odmaranja od studijskog snimanja “Aoxomoxoa”,gde su finalizirali pesme koje je pisao Garsija sa tekstopiscem Hanterom.Prvi set otvaraju dve pesme koje se nalaze na albumu:balada “Dupree’s Diamond Blues” I delikatna “Mountains of the Moon”,kasnije sa Garsijom kao pevacem.Sledila je pesma “Dark Star”,elegantna ,vokalnih harmonija,ovekovecena na albumu.Drugi set je zapoceo sa “Doin’ That Rag”,I tesko je poverovati da ova noc nije zabelezena na oficijalnom albumu. McFarlin Auditorium,Dallas,December 26th,1969 Dodavanje akusticnih setova zivoj svirci bila je karakteristika grupe krajem sezdesetih.Unplugged set u Dalasu otvoren je pesmom “The Monkey and the Engineer”,I nastavlja sa tradicionalnom “Little Sadie” I kantri “Long Black Limousine”.Psihodelicna era je prisutna I ovde sa “Dark Star” I “Turn on Your Love Light”.Ali izmedju toga je uznemiravajuci glas grupe sa utopijskom porukom “New Speedway Boogie”;Garsijini I Hanterovi memoari o smrti I debaklu,samo tri nedelje ranije za vreme besplatnog koncerta Stonsa u Altamontu. Fillmore East,New York,February 13th,1970 Dva koncerta svakoga dana(11th,13th,14th).Gitarska nirvana stigla je rano kada su se Duane Allman I PeterGreen’s Fleetwood Mac pridruzili bendu 11th da odsviraju “Dark Star”.(pesme 13th I 14th nasle su se na “Bear’s Choice” 1973).Ali concert 13th ,koji je poceo posle jedan ujutru,je kandidat za najveceg od svih.”Dire Wolf”,u pvom elektricnom izvodjenju, vijugavi pasazi kroz jos jednu “Dark Star”,zatim “The Other One”,I uzbudljiva “Turn on Your Love Light” je konacno zavrsila concert pred zoru,pogodan sat za grupu koja jezdi kroz proctor,ka suncu. Harpur College,Binghampton,New York,May 2nd,1970 Za Grateful Dead,turneje nisu bile nacin zivota,one su bile imperative.Koncerti su bili njihov primarni nacin izrazavanja.Ovaj concert se obicno navodi kao jedan od njihovih najboljih-ikada.Akusticni set –topao,ocaravajuci prikaz zemlje I jaka osecajnost sa Workingman’s Dead I American Beauty,ukljucujuci tradicionalnu duhovnu “Cold Jordan”,kao I verziju retkog prvog single iz 1966.g. “Don’t Ease Me In”.Kada su ukljucili pojacala,Dead su svirali kao das u radili u”college mixer”.Ovaj concert ,na tri diska, objavljen je na “Dick’s Picks,Volume eith”. CRTICE Tabela petnaest najizvodjenijih pesama na koncertima od 1972.g. do 1995.g. Drums(1.386)Playing in the Band(651)Sugar Magnolia(494)Not Fade Away(486)The Other One(438)Jack Straw(437)Truckin(427)Me and MY Uncle(412)Looks Like Rain(407)Promised Land(407)I Know You Rider(406)China Cat Sunflower(403)New Minglewood Blues(398)Around and Around(395)Tennessee Jed(390). Jedan od prvih akademskih tekstova o Grateful Dead pojavio se u zimu 1972.g. u “Journal of Psychedelic Drugs”,casopisu za medicinare,i uporedio koncerte Grateful Dead i Led Zeppelin.Zakljucak:sledbenici Grateful Dead(“Deadheadsâ€) favorizuju LSD a fanovi Led Zeppelin alkohol. Za razliku od ostalih clanova,Pigpen nije koristio drogue(umro od alkohola) ,ali je bio doziran u dva navrata:tokom 1966.g. imao je letnji flert sa Janis Joplin. Decenijama pre drzavne veceri sa Barakom Obamom,zena izraelskog ambasadora, Sally Oren,druzila se drugom vrstom ljudi:Quicksilver,Dead,Airplane,Joplin…Cak je igrala frizbi sa Dead,narocito sa Veirom.Airplane su cak napisali dve pesme o njoj. Jedna nije nikad snimljena,a druga “Young Girl Sunday Blues” je objavljena na trecem albumu. Jerry Garcia: -izgubio srednji prst desne ruke,njegov brat mu ga je slucajno otkinuo pri cepanju drva -voleo je da svira bendzo sa pet zica,sto ga je in spirisalo da osnuje bluegrass bend 1062.g.-“The Hart Valley Drifters”,kasnije nazvan “Wildwood Boys” -svirao je u nekoliko grupa koje su postojale za jednu ili dve svirke:”The Thunder Mountain Tub Thumper”,”The Sleepy Hollw Hog Stompers”,”The Wildwood Boys”,”The Blask Mountain Boys” -nije znao da cita note,improvizovao je po uhu I osecaju -njegov otac je imigrirao iz Spanije 1919.g. -producirao Jefferson Airplan’s “Surrealistic Pillow”,ali mu je pripala cast kao spiritualnom savetniku -zaradio svoj nadimak “Captain Trip” zbog interesovanja za LSD -nije bio zadovoljan nastupom na Woodstock festival,nazvajuci ga razocaravajucim -na svom prvom solo albumu svirao sve instrumente,osim bubnjeva -dugo je bio fan Bob Dilana -prvi idol na gitari bio mu je Chuck Berry -omiljeni pisac(naucne fantastike) Ray Bradbury -podpredsednik Al Gore mu je obezbedio licni obilazak Bele Kuce -polovina pepela je razbacano u reku Gang(Indija),zemlju koju nikad nije posetio,a druga polovina ispod mosta Golden Gejt 1970.g. Grateful Dead je odrzao najvise koncerata ikada-145 u odnosu na 141(1970) i 100+ predhodnih pet.Posle 1970.g. nije nikada odrzao vise od 87 koncerata Grupa je bila za zainteresovana zaocuvanje svetskih (kisnih) suma.Neki od njih su otisli toliko daleko da s u kupili deo dzungle u Kostariki. Tokom svoje karijere ,Dead su izveli 184 originalne pesme i 317 pesama drugih autora
  19. 5 poena
    Vix

    VICOVI!!

  20. 5 poena
    mrcelavi

    VaŠar 2020 Stockholm

    Kao i svake godine u isto vreme i na istim mestima ( u 2 objekta) posle pauze od mislim 2 godine, što od mrzovoljnosti što od zasićenja, rekoh ajd da navratim možda ima štogod zanimljivog. Ima dosta fotografija ali generalno nisam zadovoljan kvalitetom iz dva razloga: svetlo u skoro svim prostorijama je blagi užas i drugo slikao u JPEG zbog foruma. Slike ljutih i High End sprava, tja, možete naći bilo gde na Googlu stoga evo par po meni najzanimljivijih stvarčica. Kao po pravilu radi se o malim manufakturama koje pokušavaju da nađu svoje mesto pod suncem i da nije njih mogo bih slobodno da kažem da bi 200 kr ( 20 evra ) bila bačena para za ulaznicu. Pa da krenemo redom: Najači utisak na mene ostavio aktivni sistem zvučnika FASIO CORNELIA. Bass driver 18" Acoustic Elegance, Mid i tweeter ScanSpeak pogonjeni Hypex verovatno D klasa. Rade se u 2 varijante od kojih meni više leži ta druga a ona dolzi sa RAAL dipole 140-15d Smešteni u ogromnoj prostorij punoj stakla i pored toga sa lakoćom punili prostor. Zvuk odličan, uravnotežen, precizan, bez muljanja u basu a ni previše analitičan da zamara. Bilo bi zanimljivo uporediti utisak u normalnom životnom prostoru 20-30m2 da li bi 18" bio overkill.
  21. 5 poena
    Mada su i oni pooštrili politiku od kako su počeli sa ozbiljnim sadržajima. @zek - Evo linka sa Vimea ako još neko ima problema:
  22. 5 poena
    Woland

    Zanimljive i smesne slike

    ..
  23. 5 poena
    Gosha

    Kafanica . . .

    "Nastavnica u školi u Sremskoj Kamenici učenicima zadala temu za pismeni zadatak: "Moj predsednik". Došla sam do najboljeg zadatka, ocenjenog čistom peticom. Moj predsednik Moj predsednik se zove Aleksandar Vučić. On je najbolji i najlepši predsednik koga je Srbija imala. Moja mama i moj tata su članovi njegove partije. Mama je bila krojačica, ali sada je inspektor u opštini, jer je jako pametna i završila je fakultet za tri meseca. Tata je stalno išao na neke utakmice i neki zuti ljudi su ga hapsili zbog nekih navijačkih grupa, ali sada on radi neki posao na terenu. Mislim da je frizer, jer kaže da farba žute ljude u modro. Od kada je naš predsednik počeo da vlada našom lepom zemljom, mi mnogo putujemo. Idemo na sve mitinge, ja nosim balone, dobijem majicu sa znakom SNS a koju nosim u školi, i više nemam ni jednu jedinicu. Mama kaže da se ionako ne sekiram zbog ocena, kada završim školu imaću lep posao i rugaću se onim štreberima čiji roditelji govore ružno o našem predsedniku. Mama me je zamolila da joj pomognem i da napišem koja deca me zadirkuju zbog majice i hemijske olovke sa znakom SNSa. Napravio sam spisak. Drago mi je što Jovan, koji me najviše zadirkivao nema za užinu jer mu je tata dobio otkaz a mama neku bolest koja se zove nervni slom, kada im je kum Rajko, izvršitelj odneo iz kuće televizor, kompjuter, ormar i krevete na sprat. Super su se uklopili u moju i bratovu sobu. Jedino mi smeta što mama mnogo radi i posle posla. Kuca neke komentare na portalima, ali mi kaže da tako zarađuje za letovanje. Zbog toga nam kuću čisti doktorka Svetlana koja je nesposobna da leči narod jer pripada nekoj opoziciji koja izdaje našu Srbiju. Na kraju, voleo bih da predsednik večno vlada i da nam bude lepo kao sad. Ako on bude večno vladao i stric Mile će morati da se učlani kod njega i tata ga više neće zvati ološ. Onda ću moći da se družim sa njegovom decom i svi ćemo zajedno putovati po Srbiji u šarenim autobusima." Neka deca stvarno dobijaju zasluzene petice
  24. 5 poena
    neskor

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    kada smo vec kod gitarskih lampaskih pojacala, meni juce stiglo Fender '65 Princeton Reverb
  25. 5 poena
    Woland

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    laNpe (deo) za Orange gitarsko pojačalo
  26. 5 poena
    Evo konačno sve na šasiji, ostalo još malo žicanja pa da vidimo koju ćemo šemu, ograničavajuć faktor je što nemam više podnožja valjanih a ni neki izbor lampi za ulazni deo ECC81/82/85; PCC88; 6n6p; 6AN8A i EF89 je to što imam trafoji su mamura hand made osim mrežnog koji je bio 220 na 220, ustvari je davao oko 240 na sec. pa je malo razmotano i dodato 2x6.3 za grijanje izlazni su 9k/5r na nepunih 15cm2 ako bude mogućnosti preko trafoa će ići poklopci dva ista za levu i desnu stranu od marinija a ako ne ondak od špera ili slično eto, svaki predlog je dobrodošao
  27. 5 poena
    dejanco32

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    Konačno stiglo poslen 3 meseca, jer sreća je lepa samo dok se čeka Odrali me crvendaća za PDV. Projekat opremanja radnog prostora (stola) kao i sakupljanje spravica i alata za hobi se nastavlja...
  28. 5 poena
    Aleks

    Kafanica . . .

    Daj @crni., ne nasedaj na deljene FB gluposti montirane za 20 minuta u Photoshopu, ovaj se trebao bar potruditi i kupiti pozadinsku sliku a ne da mu ostane Depositphotos watermark za sliku vintage grunge papira. Ili bar da ukloni watermark, pa to je bar lako Pajz ovo, za 5 minuta rada u Photoshopu, čitaj lepo: Tito... Pun je i prepun FB ovakvih sranja, ja ga odavno shvatam isključivo kao zabavu...
  29. 5 poena
    чика-Брка

    4P1L S.E.P. ponovo

    zavrsih jedan lepi i dobro zvuceci 4P1L S.E.P. za drugara. kao sto inace kod mene nema mambo-dzambo, nema ni ovde. nikakva mistifikacija. klasican pojacivac sa direktno grejanom pentodom. ulazna 6N6P LED bias, izlazne 4P1L i ispravljacica 5C3S. nema govnjavi Kolemanov regulator. regulacija je sa LM350T, naravno original, Motorola. prosto da prostije ne moze biti. ni s od suma, ni b od bruma. jedino je buduci vlasnik trazio da pojedine stvari budu specificne. na kraju (last minute), al ne mari. iec Furutech, cinc uticnice Viborg i signalne zice srebro/zlato Gekko. bez lemljenja. zvucnicke banana uticnice su zlatne, ne znam marku. ostalo komplet ozicenje je naravno od Dunavka. sto se tice gvozdja, mrezni i priguznica su hand made by Djole Tamura (DjMilicic). tonski su AN. zvuk je savrsen i to sa neusviranim lampama. ako se neko pita sto je ispravljacica 5C3S lezeca, to je zbog drvenog rama. buduci vlasnik je odradio drveni ram, jer voli retro. a visina diktira, zato mora lezeci.
  30. 5 poena
    Aleks

    Kafanica . . .

    I baku praseta Baka Prase brate baka prase baka prase Ne zna sta ce od para, kupuje mesecno Porsejca.... od para sa YT. Jebem te zivoteeee............. guli Aco kod, goljo goljavi....kito programerska.....
  31. 4 poena
    Mikorist

    Tranzistori vs. Lampe, Alan Shaw

    Ovde ću da ubacim tekst koga nema više onlajn u izvornom obliku. Srećom pa je sačuvan u Web Arhivi. Mislim da je mnogo bolji od ovog forumskog objašnjenja. Naravno upoređivani su razni tranzistori - ali ne i SIT. Deo gde su merenja potpuno je nestao onlajn - tekst je u novijim verzijama prepravljan i skraćivan. The Cool Sound of Tubes Originally published August 1998. Although solid-state technology overwhelmingly dominates today's world of electronics, vacuum tubes are holding out in two small but vibrant areas. They do so for entirely different reasons. Microwave technology relies on tubes for their power-handling capability at high frequencies ["Tubes: still vital after all these years," Robert S. Symons, IEEE Spectrum, April, 1998]. The other area--the creation and reproduction of music--is a more complicated and controversial story. The complications and controversy stem from the fact that music is played to be heard by human beings, whose nonlinear ear-brain hearing systems are far from fully understood. Since no one knows exactly how to model the human auditory system, no one knows exactly what engineering measurements are appropriate to evaluating the performance of audio equipment. A smidgen of some kinds of distortion may sound worse to the ear than larger amounts of other kinds. So ultimately, the only way to judge audio equipment is by listening to it. Hence the controversy: subjective human perception--especially when flanked by questions of artistic merit--is made to order for arguments and disputation. Briefly stated, a commercially viable number of people find that they prefer the sound produced by tubed equipment in three areas: musical-instrument (MI) amplifiers (mainly guitar amps), some processing devices used in recording studios, and a small but growing percentage of high-fidelity equipment at the high end of the audiophile market. These areas employ vacuum tubes of the type once known as receiving tubes, but now called simply tubes. Not only has the use of vacuum tubes in these fields defied the semiconductor tide elsewhere, but such use and demand has even surged in the course of the 1990s. Today vacuum-thermionic devices hold sway over the US $100 million worldwide guitar amp business. One rough estimate shows a 10-percent-per-year growth in demand for tubes used in MI amplifiers and high-end audio since the late 1980s, with no apparent slackening--even during the U.S. recession of 1991-92. Interestingly, much of the demand for audio tubes derives not from the United States, but from Asia. In Japan, Taiwan, and mainland China, tubed high-end equipment enjoys a powerful cult status, and vintage U.S. and European electric guitars and guitar amps are valued collectors' items. Why tubes--subjective reasons The three areas of tube audio tend to be mutually exclusive and appear not to influence each other, even though all three directly involve the production or reproduction of music. It is common to see the same tube types, such as the popular EL34 power pentode, in electric-guitar amplifiers and in high-end stereo amplifiers. Often, too, these disparate products employ similar circuit topologies. Electric-guitar amplifiers, it is estimated, consume as many as three out of four of the world's production of audio tubes. This is hardly surprising, since the tubed guitar amp seems unshakably enthroned at the top of the rock 'n' roll world. In this case, the use of tubed amplifiers in the early rock of the 1950s and '60s caused their distinctive distortions to become the standard tonal effect for the electric guitarist. A cultural bias formed during those years among U.S. and British musicians in favor of the particular nonlinearities of those amps, which typically were quite simple and had little or no negative feedback to improve their linearity [see sidebar, "Defining tubes"]. As documented in many books on electric-guitar technique; in magazines such as Guitar Player, Guitar World, Vintage Guitar, and others; and on Usenet news groups such as alt.guitar.amps, the clipping distortion and other sonic artifacts of '50s-designed tubed amplifiers supply the sonic signature required for a successful guitar amp. Discussion of an amp's merit frequently hinges on the clipping effect, which is often described as yielding a sound like a brass wind instrument. The saturation distortion of the output transformer, which couples the power tubes to the speaker, also plays a key role in determining an amplifier's sound. Another amplifier parameter--its touch sensitivity--is affected by circuit nonlinearities and loose regulation of the plate-power supply. Tubes have also been cited, albeit not without controversy, as facilitating a controlled so-called infinite sustain effect because of the way their signal compression interacts with acoustic feedback from speaker to guitar string. These effects are well-known among musicians, yet seem difficult to reproduce accurately with solid-state equipment. The many designers who have tried to build tube simulators over the past 30 years have achieved varying levels of musical and financial success. Such equipment has its supporters, but most amateur and professional guitarists remain faithful to tubed amplifiers. As Ritchie Fliegler, vice president of marketing at Fender Musical Instruments Corp., Corona, Calif., said in a private letter last year, "This is not even a topic for discussion as far as I'm concerned...there is no substitute for tube electronics in the hearts and minds of pros." This kind of thinking has influenced the professional-audio world of recording and mixing equipment. Since 1985, some studio engineers have been attracted by what they perceive as the "soft" and "euphonic" sound of vacuum-tube electronics--probably because of their experiences with vintage tubed amps, since modern tubed amps can be and are made without these characteristics. Tube enthusiasts usually contrast the soft sound of tubes with the harsh sound of modern digital recording and mixing, which may have more to do with the use of electrolytic coupling capacitors and inexpensive op-amp ICs than with solid-state devices in themselves. Regardless of the validity of their reasoning, studio engineers began experimenting with old tube-equipped condenser microphones, preamps, limiters, and equalizers from the 1946-70 era. The result has been twofold: street prices for vintage tube equipment have skyrocketed, and numerous small companies have sprung up to manufacture tube-equipped devices, following a variety of design practices. Why tubes--objectively If cries of fraud and derisive comments about "magical sound" sometimes greet the use of tubes in audio equipment, there are also highly competent electrical engineers who see definite advantages in tubed equipment. An example is John Atwood, consulting engineer and owner of One Electron Co., Santa Clara, Calif. The erstwhile designer of application-specific ICs and other solid-state logic circuits has managed to transform his hobby of tube audio design into a full-time consulting business. In Atwood's opinion, "Some of the differences in the audio qualities between tubes and transistors have to do with the inherent physical properties of the devices and with the circuit topologies and components used with each type of device. There is no way around it: linear [triode] vacuum tubes have lower overall distortion than bipolar transistors or FETs, and the distortion products are primarily lower-order...the clipping characteristic of tubes is actually not much softer than transistors, but feedback tends to 'square-up' the clipping. Thus, the heavy feedback in most solid-state designs gives them worse overload performance. "A low- or no-feedback design can be driven harder without audible distortion," Atwood continued. "High feedback also can lead to transient intermodulation distortion (TIM), caused by clipping or slew-rate limiting within the feedback loop." See following table for a comparison of the attributes of tubes and transistors in audio applications. Click on image for larger view. Distortion under test Since much of the rationale for the continued use of tubes in audio equipment is based on distortion and noise, we decided to compare how several representative tubes and transistors performed in this regard. Using basic circuit designs in which these devices are typically used, we tested two tubes against four types of transistor--respectively, a medium-mu triode and a pentode against a low-voltage bipolar transistor, a low-voltage junction FET (JFET), a high-voltage bipolar transistor, and a high-voltage MOSFET. The figures show the distortion and noise spectra of each device. All the measurements were made with an Audio Precision System 2 with its analog oscillator set to 1 kHz. The oscillator output level was adjusted to give an rms voltage of 2.00 V at the output of the test device. The output impedance of the oscillator was either 20 (omega) or 600 (omega), depending on the device under test. The test device was monitored by the System 2's fast Fourier transform (FFT) function using its 20-bit analog-to-digital converter running at 48 kilosamples per second. The FFT was synchronous (no windowing), and was averaged over 16 samples. The residual harmonics were at least 120 dB down. The input impedance of the System 2 was set to 100 k(omega). Both input and output were floating, with the test fixture separately grounded to the System 2. In the vacuum tube test fixture, the filament voltage was dc, regulated to 6.3 V. The output of the tube was monitored through a 10:1 compensated divider so as to reduce ac and dc loading. The summary of second-harmonic distortion levels follows (click on any of these images to enlarge): 6SN7GTB medium-mu triode: Noise floor is about 130 dB below the fundamental; second harmonic is 52 dB down [blue curve, above]. Operating conditions were taken from the resistance-coupled amplifier tables in RCA tube manual RC-21, 1961, p. 439. Note: the voltage gain of this device is much lower than that obtained with any of the transistors or the pentode. 6AU6A pentode: Noise floor is about 120 dB below the fundamental; second harmonic is 48 dB down [red curve, above]. Operating conditions were taken from the resistance-coupled amplifier tables in RCA tube manual RC-21, 1961, p. 438. Click on image for larger view. 2N2222 low-voltage bipolar transistor: The noise floor is about 125 dB below the fundamental; the second harmonic is -30 dB. The circuit was taken from the output stage of "High-Fidelity Preamplifier," p. 609 of RCA transistor manual SC-14, 1973, with a 2N2222 substituted for the (similar) 2N3242A. A 1-k(omega) resistor was used to match the 20-(omega) output impedance of the generator to the transistor. 2N5457 low-voltage junction FET: Unlike the high-voltage MOSFET, the JFET has excellent noise performance (-140 dB) but poor distortion (second harmonic is only 30 dB down). Because of the lower I dss of available junction FETs, the drain resistor was raised to 10 k(omega); the bias was adjusted to give about 1/2 V DD at the output. Click image to enlarge. MJE2361 high-voltage bipolar transistor: In this test, the transistor was substituted for the 6SN7GTB triode, and the bias was chosen to give the same operating point as the tube. A 1-k(omega) resistor was used to match the 20-(omega) output impedance of the generator to the transistor. The result: a noise floor at about -110 dB, and a second-harmonic level of -46 dB. IRF822 high-voltage enhancement MOSFET: When substituted for the 6SN7GTB, with bias adjusted to give the same operating point as the tube, the MOSFET exhibited excellent distortion characteristics, which were compromised by its noise floor of -100 dB--about 30 dB above the tube's. Second-harmonic distortion is 41 dB down, which is only 59 dB above the noise. Click on image to enlarge. HS-11 TRANSFORMER;-90 DB Triad HS-11 input transformer: Source impedance was set to 600 (omega). The transformer was loaded by the 100-k(omega) input impedance of an Audio Precision analyzer. This test was included because some professional audio experts commented on the unusual behavior of audio coupling transformers in tube circuits--specifically, that the odd harmonics tend to be stronger than the even ones. The HS-11 is typical of small input transformers used to couple a 600-(omega) balanced line to a tube grid. Residual noise plus distortion of the analyzer, with only a 600-(omega) resistor in series, is at least 118 dB down. Click on image to enlarge. Although this is not intended to be an exhaustive examination of all available semiconductors or tubes, the resulting frequency spectra lead us to some conclusions that experienced audio designers have often remarked upon in the past. Transistors operating on low-voltage supplies tend to have higher spectral distortion components than tubes. If we go to high-voltage transistors, operating on supplies comparable to those of the tubes, the distortion products are less objectionable. Unfortunately, the noise floor of such devices is much higher. The IRF822 was very triode-like in distortion yet suffered from a noise floor some 30 dB higher than that of the triode. No other active device possesses both the low distortion products and the low noise floor of the medium-mu triode--albeit at the expense of voltage gain. The distortion products of transformers are much lower than those of active devices, yet quite different in character. Note that the odd-order harmonic products tend to be higher in level than the even-order products--exactly the reverse of the tubes and transistors. It should be obvious that these simple circuit designs can be improved upon, by using differential topologies with constant-current loads and negative loop feedback. It should also be obvious that the same techniques can be applied to transistors or to tubes; and if this were done, the triode would continue to enjoy some advantages over the semiconductors--and the pentode, for that matter. Why tubes--subjective reasons Clipping distortion is not the only issue. In semiconductors, the shift of characteristics with temperature along with their relatively low maximum operating temperature has led to extensive use of Class-B amplifiers to keep power dissipation down. In many designs, the result has been audible crossover distortion, which often does not show up in published specifications. Those specs are typically based on measurements made at full power, where crossover distortion is at a minimum. Consumer tube amplifiers use Class-A or Class-AB designs, which have vanishingly low distortion even at low signal levels. Another audio expert--Bruce Rozenblit, the owner of Transcendent Sound Co., Kansas City, Mo., and a well-known designer of tubed amplifiers--said he sees the output transformer as a major factor behind tube sound: "The warmth is created by a large component of second-order distortion, and the slow rise time of the output transformer causes a coloration that I would describe as a smoothing effect...the transformer is a nonlinear element that causes alterations of the signal in the time and frequency domains, thereby altering the sound." Bill Whitlock, the president of Jensen Transformers Inc., Van Nuys, Calif., has a similar view. "Much of the perceived advantage of tubes is actually due to the transformers which often accompany them," he said. "Harmonic distortions tend to be rather high--1 percent or more is common--but are almost entirely low order (second and third harmonics). Transformer distortions are frequency-dependent in a way that most electronic distortions are not. Intermodulation (IM) distortions are created when a low frequency modulates the gain of a high frequency passing through the channel at the same time. The ear is much more sensitive to these IM distortions than to total harmonic distortion (THD). For electronic distortions, one normally expects IM to be three to four times the THD. In transformers, however, IM is actually about a third to a quarter of the THD." Speaking about solid-state designs, Whitlock asserted that they "...depend on huge amounts of negative feedback to 'fix everything', including crossover distortion. Op amps commonly have open-loop THD in the 20 percent to 70 percent range. Stabilization generally requires open-loop gain to fall at 6 dB per octave. This means that, for ultrasonic input signals, the op amp has little gain margin to fix its own distortion. The ultrasonic signals, along with distortion products, are fed to the next stage for further distortion and intermodulation. This intermodulation creates audible, but non-harmonically related, artifacts which contaminate the noise floor and mask many subtle features of the music." Whereas many analog-circuit designers today appear to feel that tubes are inherently noisy, Atwood disagrees. "In the audio region, 1/f noise tends to dominate over shot noise--it varies considerably from device to device," he observed. "You need to select devices for low 1/f noise. ... Microphonics, though, are a problem [with tubes]." Whitlock said he saw things somewhat differently: "Higher operating voltages can expand one end of the dynamic-range envelope, but for audio, tubes are generally noisier (without the help of transformers) at the other end." Atwood qualified this statement with the comment that it is true only for low-impedance, low-level sources such as some (noncapacitive) microphone elements. In addition to the active devices themselves, the passive components customarily used with them apparently also favor tube designs. According to Atwood, the low impedances of bipolar transistors necessitate the use of large (high-value) coupling capacitors, which for the most part means electrolytics. High dielectric absorption, imperfect high-frequency characteristics, and aging of electrolytics put them at a sonic disadvantage compared with the good-quality film capacitors nearly universally used for coupling the stages of tubed amps. "While it is possible to build solid-state amps with no electrolytics, it is rarely done," he said. Whitlock said he felt that the main problem with electrolytics is actually at low frequencies: "The major problem with electrolytics is dielectric hysteresis, which produces high THD at low frequencies, where there are ever-increasing voltage swings across the capacitor." He also stated that direct coupling is the most desirable scheme, whether semiconductors or tubes are used. Parallel views are held by guitar-amp designers. As Rick Perrotta, a longtime recording engineer and cofounder of guitar-amp manufacturer Matchless Amplifiers, Santa Fe Springs, Calif., explained, when a transformer saturates, it has a compressing effect. "When someone says that a particular guitar amplifier has a big fat sound, that is due, in part, to the output transformer saturating along with the output tubes. Solid-state amps can't perform that trick." Guitar amp origins It was in the '30s that the idea of attaching a transducer, amplifier, and loudspeaker to a guitar first caught on. Early guitar amps were used primarily with lap guitars, usually made of solid wood or metal with no resonant body to increase volume. Later amps were adopted by big-band guitarists, and in the '50s, amplifiers became pretty much mandatory for the amalgam of blues, country music, and jazz known as rock 'n' roll. Since transistors did not enter wide usage until about 1960, all of the originating styles of rock guitar were developed on tube amplifiers. Later, musicians discovered that using a gain device before the guitar amp forced the amp to clip heavily; they liked the resulting sound, and it became the foundation of hard rock, later called heavy metal. Since all the past styles of guitar playing are still regarded as musically valid, the market for guitar equipment has fragmented. Various manufacturers offer arrays of amplifiers, preamps, effects processors, and other means of electronically processing the guitar signal. Both reproductions of early equipment and innovations are available. Most remarkably, the basic designs of tube guitar amps tend to be based on a few prototypes that date from the '50s or early '60s. Extra channels or gain stages are added, tone controls are modified, sound effects (like reverberation and electronic tremolo) vary, and speaker cabinets become available in various configurations. Yet the basic circuits keep returning to the same set of paradigms. No manufacturer of guitar amps has been as influential as Fender. Between 1946 and 1965, founder Leo Fender and his design team created most of the rock guitar sound in the form of the amplification used with their solid-body guitars, such as the famous and widely-copied Stratocaster model. The most primitive design for a Fender amp is the Champ model. Being intended as a low-cost amplifier for students and beginners, a typical Champ uses a single 6V6GT or 6L6GC power tube. Because of its single-ended power stage--and the large amount of second-harmonic distortion thereby engendered--the Champ had a sound often described as "soft" and "lush." The amp's small, cheap output transformer saturated easily and gave very poor low-frequency response. Early Champs used 6V6GTs, were extremely primitive, and had no feedback, while later models had more complex circuits and loop feedback. In spite of their crudeness, early Champs are now valuable collector's items, and have been much imitated in recent years. The Champ sound is a standard, typical of many low-cost amps used on early rock 'n' roll records. The most popular Fender models among serious professionals are the Bandmaster, Twin, Showman, and Bassman with push-pull 6L6GC or 5881 output tubes. The tone of these models has a ringing quality much sought after. The peculiar distortions from these amps and their matching speakers, in addition to the inherently light regulation afforded by tube rectifiers, gives distinctive inherent compression effects. This combination is what makes possible the infinite sustain effect mentioned earlier. Even though the Bassman was intended originally for bass guitar, it was widely used for lead guitar and became possibly the most copied guitar amp in history, especially the 1959 model equipped with four 25-cm speaker drivers. The Twin Reverb model is often modified with extra gain stages for more distortion, producing a fair degree of compression and allowing the lengthy sustain of guitar notes. It served as the prototype for many modern amps with complex preamp sections. Starting in 1962, a new sound appeared in Britain. Jim Marshall, a London music dealer, found that imported Fender amps were popular but too expensive, and so he developed his own. While his first amp was a copy of the Bassman, he later changed the output tubes to push-pull EL34s. These European tubes were true pentodes, different in electrical behavior from the beam tetrodes used in Fender amps. With the new tubes, Marshall's amps took on a tone described as very distorted and "crunchy," which is now considered the classic British blues-rock sound. Interestingly, the EL34 had reliability problems when operated in deep clipping for long periods, so in the '70s the U.S. distributor for Marshall amps switched the output tubes to 6550 beam tetrodes. As the sound of these amps was much more like very powerful Fenders, some preference arose among U.S. musicians for a "harder" sound than Marshalls give with EL34s. New distribution in the 1980s had EL34-equipped Marshalls entering the United States, as Jim Marshall preferred. The third common guitar-amp design is that of the models AC15 and AC30 made by Vox Amplification Ltd., London. These were often used in Britain and throughout Europe, most notably by the Beatles at the peak of their popularity. The AC15 uses two push-pull EL84 output tubes, the AC30 four EL84s. Both models use self-bias of the output tubes, in Class A operation and with no negative feedback, unlike many other push-pull guitar amps. The result is a unique tone that varies greatly with string-plucking force. AC30s were made available with a Top Boost option, adding gain stages for further versatility. The Top Boost AC30 design is widely imitated by modern amp designers. Bass guitar amplified otherwise A bass guitar has different needs from a lead guitar. Bass is used to reinforce the song rhythmically, working with the melody at a pitch several octaves below. Nearly all bass guitars are solid-body types--simply larger versions of regular electric guitars with very thick strings. Since the bass sound is not always assisted by distortion, solid-state designs have come to hold sway over this market. Any amp with a high damping factor and capable of generating high powers at low frequencies can serve as a bass amp. Yet a ground swell of interest in tubed bass amplifiers has surfaced since 1990. Early bass amps, such as Fender models, were essentially little different from guitar amps. Then the Ampeg SVT was introduced in 1969. It dwarfed previous bass amplifiers, producing 300 W from six 6146 or 6550 tubes. The SVT became a standard much imitated, especially in the last 10 years. Modern tube bass amps are usually very large, producing 200 W at least from a set of 6550 beam tetrodes--as many as 10 in some models. Professional audio gear For all that guitar and bass amps are targeted at professional musicians, they are often considered somewhat apart from the professional audio market. The usual definition of "pro audio" specifies sound-reinforcement and sound-recording equipment. Each kind is used both in a live musical setting and in the recording studio, yet they are somewhat differentiated by application. For stage use, ruggedness and reliability matter the most. In the studio, though, there is more concern about the specifics of the device's transfer function, which may be exploited as a sound effect. The most general use of vacuum tubes in the recording studio is inside condenser microphones, used to record vocals. Each microphone model has its own transducer assembly or "capsule" design, each having distinctive variations in frequency response, phase shift, and signal distortion. Even the finest and most carefully designed capsules are not exactly perfect, so recording engineers have learned to exploit the imperfections artistically. The advantage of tubes in condenser microphones is their very high input impedance, which does not load down the capsule significantly. Many recording professionals agree that the soft clipping exhibited by the tube--along with its high-voltage operation--can also be important, since some singers have very powerful voices, capable of producing peaks far beyond the dynamic range of typical solid-state electronics. Almost as much the rage as tubed microphones are special preamps and so-called direct input boxes, which in studio signal chains serve to provide voltage gain, impedance conversion, and (in the case of direct input boxes) conversion from unbalanced to balanced connections. In spite of their lesser usage in studios, compared with tubed condenser microphones, these preamp devices are also riding high on a resurgence of popularity. Among the best-liked designs of this category are units that are solid-state but for a single 12AX7 tube operated at a very low plate voltage--as little as 12 V. This so-called starved-plate operation delivers high distortion, which some equipment designers consider the only useful characteristic of vacuum tubes in audio. Expensive yet much favored is a category of tube preamps that are a lot like classic circuits from the '50s and '60s. This would include products from Tube-Tech (TC Electronic A/S, Risskov, Denmark), Anthony DeMaria Laboratories (ADL), New Paltz, N.Y., and Manley Laboratories, Chino, Calif. The standard design involves push-pull circuits, frequently using 12BH7 or 12FQ7 dual triodes along with 12AX7s and 12AU7s. Input and output coupling transformers, to match impedances of 600-(omega) lines to the tube circuits, are found in these devices, in spite of the difficulties of making high-quality audio transformers. A key use of tubes in the recording chain is in signal compressors, also called limiters or leveling amplifiers. In general terms, a high-quality audio compressor consists of a preamp, a so-called sidechain with audio-signal rectifier and peak detector, and a voltage-controlled attenuator or amplifier driven by the peak-detected voltage. The control is arranged so that signal gain in the preamp rises as the signal level on the input falls, giving a narrowed dynamic range. Compressors of this type are considered mandatory in recording and production studios, for a variety of sonic effects. Rock music is often heavily compressed to give the illusion of greater loudness. Tube compressors tend to follow the examples of vintage equipment. Among the most influential was the Teletronix LA-2A, in which a controlled attenuator, consisting of an electroluminescent panel driven directly by the tube peak detector, shone onto a light-sensitive cadmium-sulfide resistor. Such devices have compression ranges of at most 10:1--not large compared with the enormous compression ratios available with modern solid-state designs. The limitations of the tubed compressors have apparently not affected their value. LA-2As known to sell for $4000 on the street today were worth perhaps $100 in 1980. Whereas all the makers of vintage compressors are currently out of business or no longer producing such equipment, most of the modern firms produce compressors, ranging from starved-plate types (Aphex Tubessence) to vintage-style designs. A tube compressor of modern design is the Summit Audio DCL-200, a dual compressor of hybrid design. Its input and output circuits, as well as the peak-detecting sidechain, are solid-state, while 12AX7s are used for signal amplification. A similar situation exists with outboard audio equalizers (EQs). Essentially complex tone controls, dedicated EQs are viewed as adjuncts to the EQ circuitry built into the channel modules of modern mixing boards. Many of the above companies also have tube-equipped EQs in their lines. Often they are based on classic designs by long-defunct firms, such as Pultec and Lang. The tube EQs often use passive RLC filters, buffered on the input and output with tubes, whereas active filters are the usual basis for modern solid-state EQs. The Summit Audio EQP-100, manufactured since 1985, uses tube gain sections and passive RLC filters combined with input-output drivers based on op amps using discrete transistors. Other specialized areas in which tubes find application include mixers and rotating-speaker tremolo devices. The latter, pioneered in the '40s by Leslie, have remained in favor for their distinctive phasing sound. Leslie speakers are considered essential for use with the Hammond B-3 electric organ, a standard instrument for rock and jazz music for 40 years. In point of fact, Leslie speakers with tube amplifiers are still being manufactured by Hammond Suzuki Corp., Addison, Ill., while Motion Sound Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah, has introduced rotating-speaker devices that incorporate tube-based electronic circuitry. High-end equipment Perhaps the oddest subgenre of tube audio is the high-end audio component market. High-end equipment is aimed at the most obsessive audiophiles, famed for worrying about small details which most people ignore or cannot even hear. Yet in spite of its obscurity and its notorious marketing-driven focus, high end is the most vibrant and active area of all. Until recently, the high-end market belonged almost entirely to solid-state equipment. The use of tubed equipment in the field started as a semi-nostalgic subculture, with the use by audiophiles of vintage hi-fi amplifiers from before 1970. Unlike users in the music performance market, audiophiles have often preferred tubes for their clean, smooth sound--in some cases, far more detailed and life-like than most early solid-state equipment. Manufacturers of new tube equipment like Audio Research Corp., Minnetonka, Minn., and Conrad-Johnson Design Inc., Fairfax, Va., appeared during the '70s. The field was small and sedate until the late '80s, when interest (and the number of manufacturers) began to skyrocket. Whereas the hi-fi market originated after World War II in the United States and Europe, the latest aggressive rise in high-end sales has been concentrated in the Asian countries, led by Japan. Much of the high-end equipment made in the West is exported and sold in the Far East. Indeed, Asian audiophiles see labels reading "Made in USA" and "Made in England" as badges of status and quality. The rise of high-end sales was influenced by the statements of subjective audio reviewers, whose nontechnical and rarely rigorous listening tests at times encouraged near-hysteria among magazine readers. A positive review in a powerful magazine such as Stereophile can trigger hundreds or even thousands of unit sales, and turn an unknown manufacturer into an instant success. A negative review can sink a small firm just as easily (and has done so). This applies only to the small North American market. In Asia, terms such as "audio nut" and "audio mania" are often applied to the users and makers of high-end equipment. In Japan alone, the market for tube equipment could easily be five or 10 times as large as in the United States, the source of much of the equipment. The high-end market in Asia seems much more chaotic and ill-defined than elsewhere, with many audiophiles choosing to construct their own equipment from scratch, using a wide variety of tubes and/or semiconductors. The demand for high-end tube gear in Asia has been fueled, to an even greater degree than in the United States, by an obsession with obscure sonic characteristics. Starting in 1973, Japanese "audio maniacs" were exhorted to seek out the primitive Western Electric 300B audio triode, originally used in late-'30s movie theater amplifiers. Similar edicts were issued about other antique Western Electric tubes, such as the 205D and 212E, and about '30s Western Electric amplifiers and loudspeakers. And hi-fi components made in the '50s and early '60s, by highly regarded firms such as Marantz America Inc., Roselle, Ill., and McIntosh Laboratory Inc., Binghamton, N.Y., enjoy cult status in Asia. Such obsessive desire has driven the street prices of some vintage audio to many times their original retail prices, and has caused Marantz and McIntosh to reissue some of their past models of "obsolete" tube hi-fi components. Much of high-end is conducted in a gold-rush fashion, with companies advertising exotic connecting cables and acoustical treatment devices while making wild claims about the supernatural results achieved. The result: negative comments from the professional engineering fraternity. Items have been published in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, in electronic-industry journals such as EE Times, and elsewhere that attack the methods and conclusions of the audiophiles. In spite of the bad press, high-end audio was estimated in a Wall Street Journal article in December 1991 to sell as much as $1 billion per year worldwide, enjoying a 20 percent annual growth rate. Japan, alone, consumes $200 million per year in high-end components. Some influence may be exerted on high-end sound by the pro-audio world. Most audiophiles appear to be between the ages of 30 and 50, and thus have been exposed to rock guitar since childhood. Perhaps more to the point, the growth of sales of tubed equipment was also facilitated by the availability of low-cost Russian, East European, and Chinese tubes. Like the guitar and pro-audio areas, high end has expanded most since 1985, about when these tubes first started to appear on the market in large quantities throughout the United States, Western Europe, and the Far East. At the same time, receiving-tube manufacture in the West has virtually ended because of the comparatively small market. Like the guitar world, high end is hardly a monolithic market. Demand for tube amplifiers has split into three pieces, with audiophiles choosing their preferred design topologies from a list. Designers in the field usually subscribe to only one of these topologies, and battles between the camps flare up regularly. Not so long ago, nearly all high-end tube amplifiers were of conventional classic hi-fi design, using push-pull 6550s or EL34s with negative feedback of 20 dB or less. Audio Research and Conrad-Johnson are among the largest builders of these types. [see sidebar, "Defining terms"]. In recent years, however, the field has seen the rise of the single-ended amplifier. Most of this started in Japan, with the preferred design using one or two primitive power triodes and no feedback. Distortion is substantial, though mostly second-harmonic in nature. Power output tends to be low, necessitating the use of efficient speakers. A parallel phenomenon has been the return to favor of highly efficient horn speakers, which were scorned as too "colored" or inaccurate by audiophiles--until single-ended amps became trendy. An example of a single-ended triode amplifier is the Moth Audio 304TL. The third and least-used design is called output transformerless (OTL). Driving a low-impedance speaker directly is difficult with tubes, calling for many low-impedance triodes or tetrodes in push-pull sets. Nonetheless, some audiophiles consider the elimination of the output transformer, with its electrical nonlinearities, to be worth the effort. A modern OTL is the Transcendent Sound amplifier, which uses eight EL509 power tetrodes to produce 80 W into an 8-(omega) speaker load and is one of the few modern tube audio devices to be covered by a U.S. patent. Transcendent's Rozenblit feels that the output transformer is fine for guitar amps but not for high-fidelity: "The warmth is gone, the detail and resolution are much greater, and the rise time is much faster...[yet] I cannot duplicate the...sound with solid-state devices that is generated by my OTL. I wish I could, because I could sell 100 times as many units." Choosing a tube It is obvious that tube-audio designers like to use tubes from the same small group of types. In guitar amps, preamp and output tube choice are usually dictated by old Fender/Marshall/Vox designs. Preamp stages are made of 12AX7s; phase splitters and drivers are 12AX7s or else 12AT7s; and output tubes are from one of five families: 6L6GC, 6V6GT, EL34, EL84, and 6550. For example, when Matchless amps arrived in the late '80s, their use of EF86 low-noise pentodes in their input stages befuddled musicians; the amps eventually proved themselves and came into vogue, in spite of the unexpected tube lineup. In professional audio, the standard choices are not fully settled. Vintage-style equipment uses 12AX7s, 12AU7s, 12AT7s, and 12BH7s, sometimes 12AY7s and a few others. Low-cost equipment opts for the 12AX7 because of its ready availability, since it is the most popular preamp tube in guitar amps. High-end designers in the past relied on power tubes endemic in the late '50s and '60s, primarily 6550 and EL34 types. The arrival of single-ended triode amplifiers has encouraged wide use of the 300B and other primitive triodes using directly-heated cathodes. In recent years, tubes have developed a poor reputation for reliability. Most of it seems the result of low-quality imported tubes, primarily Chinese in origin. A side-effect has been the veneration of new old stock [see sidebar "Defining Terms"] U.S. and European tubes, of types that are still being manufactured but not by the original makers. Since each manufacturer has its own proprietary formula for cathode coatings and other materials, tubes of the same type but from different manufacturers often sound slightly different. Since the standards have already been settled as being new old stock types like the RCA black-plate 6L6GC and Telefunken smooth-plate 12AX7 [see Defining Terms, p. 28], those types of tubes have increased in value along with the vintage equipment they were used in originally, even if the tubes end up in new equipment. Some boutique guitar-amp makers and high-end firms deliberately equip their new production with scarce NOS tubes, charging the customer accordingly, while professing their aural superiority and limiting the sales of their product (and, perhaps, also ensuring the product's obsolescence when tube stocks run out). Another general tendency has been for tubed amplifiers (of both guitar and high-end types) to be designed and built by technically unqualified people. As Transcendent's Rozenblit said, "Properly designed tube equipment is extremely reliable. I have repaired many pieces of tube gear from the late '50s or early '60s where all of tubes still worked. Usually, a filter capacitor dried out and failed. The poor reputation comes from basically two factors. One is that from about 1970 to about 1990, the quality of vacuum tubes went through the floor. With the resurgence of tube audio, very high-quality tubes are now being manufactured. The second reason is that many contemporary tube designers don't know what they are doing. They are not engineers, they are salesmen. Tubes are forgiving and easy to work with, which allows the less sophisticated to easily enter the marketplace." Coming Attractions A major stumbling block to the wide use of tubes, especially in consumer audio electronics, is the fact that most tube-equipped audio devices are made in the United States or Europe in small quantities, and tend to sell for high prices. A change in this situation may be presaged by the arrival in the high-end market of many low-cost amplifiers and preamps made in offshore factories. Firms such as Antique Sound USA Co., Seattle, Wash.; Alpha Audio Laboratory, Belmont, Calif.; and Jolida Inc., Annapolis Junction, Md., have recently begun to import low-cost amps and preamps made by Chinese or Taiwanese factories. In the tubed guitar-amplification world, imported Asian-made products have yet to make a significant impact, although most inexpensive solid-state amps are Asian-made and a few tube amps are being exported from China. New Sensor Corp., of New York City, imports a line of guitar amps built for it in the Reflector factory in Saratov, Russia--these "Sovtek" amps have proven to be popular and affordable. Solid-state designers have long attempted to produce tube simulators, using solid-state analog circuits like diode clippers and compressors to produce transfer functions and distortion akin to those of tubed guitar amps. Although these products have attracted only a limited following to date, the recent appearance of solid-state amplifiers based on digital signal processing (DSP) and using physical modeling algorithms, has stirred some interest among serious musicians. To quote Art Thompson, technical editor of Guitar Player magazine, San Mateo, Calif.: "Transistor amps have definitely come a long way towards their ultimate goal of sounding exactly like their tube-powered counterparts, but I think most pro players and industry people have realized that this is a futile objective...." As to the success of DSP guitar amps like the Line 6 products from Fast Forward Designs Inc., Culver City, Calif., Thompson said, "We've tested some impressive tube-simulation devices, and better ones are undoubtedly on the horizon." In the professional audio market, the final frontier for vacuum tubes looks to be in the mixing console. This device is the heart of a working studio, serving as primary signal router, EQ and effects controller, and the tool to mix down multiple recorded channels to a stereo master music program. Mixers used in most studio settings are large and complex and often equipped with computer-controlled automated mix-down capability. Although expensive, large mixing desks are frequently based on low-cost op-amp ICs such as the 5534, and use electrolytic capacitors for coupling the audio signal from stage to stage. Some recording engineers have found this scheme wanting, hence recent introductions of tubed mixers. Companies producing such mixers are Summit Audio, the UK's Manley Laboratories and TL Audio Ltd., the latter being the sole producer of full-size mixing consoles with tubes at this time. The market may expand in the future, as interest in audio-tube electronics grows. The most interesting new development is the introduction since 1990 of new tube types specifically designed for audio applications. Russian, Slovakian, Serbian, and Chinese factories currently opt to imitate the popular audio tubes of past types, such as 6L6GC and 12AX7. Yet the market has been open to some new tube types not directly based on any U.S. or European tube or modifications thereof. These types have aroused some interest from original-equipment makers, even though they seldom fit existing equipment. In the guitar and pro-audio markets, new versions of classic power tetrodes and pentodes include, from the JJ/Teslovak Co., Cadca, Slovakia, the KT88S and E34LS, which are modified and uprated in power dissipation rating from their KT88 and EL34 prototypes. New high-power triodes, such as the SV811/572 series and 3CX300A1, have been introduced by Svetlana. Even more than other fields, the high-end market has seen an explosion of power triodes: the VV30B and VV52B from KR Enterprise Co., Prague, Czech Republic; Svetlana's SV811/SV572 series; the AV30B SL and AV62B SL from AVVT Technologies, Prague, Czech Republic; and many versions of the 300B from two different factories in China, two in Russia, and one in Slovakia--not to mention the revival of Western Electric and its resumed manufacture of the original 300B. The KT90 beam tetrode, made by Ei Electronic, Nis, Serbia, has proved so popular for audiophile amps that a Chinese factory has even introduced its own version. Also winning a following in high-end audio are some Russian tubes unknown in the West until recently, such as the 6C33C-B from Electronpribor Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk, Russia. More new types are expected to be introduced, and some out-of-production types will be reintroduced, over the next several years. Vacuum tubes enjoy an unshakable position in the design of guitar amplification. Their use in the recording studio and in home audio often seems like a fad, but it has very old roots and is therefore unlikely to disappear overnight, as fads do. Technical reasons for the use of tube electronics in some applications look solid and are well-defended both by professional designers and by the users, who define and drive the marketplace. So long as musical tastes demand them, tubed audio equipment and replacement tubes will be produced well into the next century, and probably thereafter. About the author Eric Barbour has been an applications engineer with Svetlana Electron Devices Inc., Portola Valley, Calif., since July 1996. His work involves testing and characterizing new vacuum-tube types and constructing and testing amplifier circuitry for Svetlana audio and RF tubes. Earlier, he was a senior technician and then an engineer with the U.S. Department of Energy, Intelligent Electronics Co., and Dionex Corp. A staff editor of Vacuum Tube Valley magazine, Sunnyvale, Calif., since its founding in 1995, he also contributes to Glass Audio magazine, Peterborough, N.H. Well-written articles on the subjective and objective characteristics of tube audio electronics include: "Why tubes sound so good," by Doug Fearn, Pro Audio Review, January/February 1996, Vol. 2, no. 1, p. 15; "The grounded ear" Peter Sutheim's column in The Audio Amateur, Issue 3, 1980, p. 34; and "Tubes versus transistors-- Is there an audible difference?" by Russell O. Hamm in Journal Of the Audio Engineering Society, May 1973, Vol. 21, no. 4, p. 267 (reprinted in Glass Audio, Issue 4, 1992, p. 16 on). An unusual approach to testing for distortion products in power amplifiers is taken in "Spectral contamination measurement," by Deane Jensen and Gary Sokolich, presented at the 85th AES Convention, 3-6 November 1988 (Audio Engineering Society, New York City, 1988). Spectral distortion products of transistor amplifiers are compared, along with those from a McIntosh MC-30 tube amplifier, whose spectral plot is quite different from those of solid-state amplifiers. In professional recording, tube equipment is a small but growing field. Recent articles about it include: "Tube processors--The outboard renaissance," by Loren Alldrin, MIX magazine, May 1997, Vol. 21, no. 5, p. 108; "A reader's guide to vintage gear," by Fletcher, MIX, November 1996, p. 84; "Retro-Active," by Michael Molenda, Electronic Musician, June 1995, p. 36; "The retro movement," by Sue Sillitoe, Audio Media, November 1994, p. 48; and "The vacuum tube rides again," by Walter Sear, MIX, May 1994, p. 24. Textbooks on professional audio equipment design using tubes are a quite recent phenomenon. The most useful include Principles of Power and The Ultimate Tone, by Kevin O'Connor (Power Press Publishing Co., London, Ont., Canada, 1996); Vacuum Tube Guitar And Bass Amplifier Theory, by Tino Zottola (self-published, 1997); and Dan Torres' Inside Tube Amps (Sparpco Inc., San Mateo, Calif., 1996). An unusual reference book, with hundreds of schematic diagrams for tube-based music equipment is Aspen Pittman's The Tube Amp Book, edition 5 (Groove Tubes Inc., Sylmar, Calif., 1995). Suitable for novices is Beginner's Guide To Tube Audio Design, by Bruce Rozenblit (Audio Amateur Press, Peterborough, N.H., 1997). All the books are available from Antique Electronic Supply, 6221 S. Maple Ave., Tempe, AZ 85283. A taste of the fascinating and obscure world of "boutique" guitar amplifiers is afforded by Art Thompson's "20 mule duel: we wrangle a herd of new boutique amps," in Guitar Player, February 1997, Vol. 31, no. 2, p.118. Plenty of publications intensively cover vacuum-tube audio electronic design. Their emphasis is usually on hi-fi audio, although material about guitar amps and professional studio electronics appears regularly. English-language publications include Glass Audio (Box 176, Peterborough, NH 03458) and Vacuum Tube Valley (1095 E. Duane Ave., Suite 106, Sunnyvale CA 94086). Magazines that concentrate on high-end audio design include Sound Practices (Box 180562, Austin, TX 78718), Ultra-High Fidelity (Box 158, Cheshunt, Herts., EN7 6UH, UK), and Valve (Box 2786, Poulsbo, WA 98370). Non-English tube-audio publications include: The Italian Audion (Piazza Madonna Aldobrandini 7, 50123 Firenze) and Costruire Hi-Fi (Via Toti 9, 20010 Bareggio, Italy). The Japanese MJ Audio Technology (Seibundo Shinkosha Publishing Co., 13-7, Yayoicho 1-chome, Nakano-Ku, Tokyo 164, Japan). The French Musique et Technique (Bureau de Depot 1050, Brussels 5, Belgium). The German Hi-Fi Scene (Dufourstrasse 165, CH-8008 Zurich, Switzerland). IZVOR The Cool Sound of Tubes - IEEE Spectrum ARCHIVE.IS archived 16 Feb 2020 22:28:22 UTC
  32. 4 poena
    Superhik

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    Magacioneski virus radi svoje.
  33. 4 poena
    Superhik

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    Izbjegavajte bilo kakav kontakt sa clanom foruma zeljkor i ne citajte sta pise. Velika je vjerovatnoca da ce vas zaraziti magacionerskim virusom. Posledice znamo.
  34. 4 poena
    Mikorist

    Gramofonska tema

    Promenio sam naziv teme. U gramofonska tema. Kad god vidim naslov udrobljeno - pitam se ko šta drobi ovde
  35. 4 poena
    zeljkor

    Bin Serbona (Serbian made drivers/speakers)

    Verujem da je ocigledno da ljudi pre pojave T/S modela nisu gledali u bob kada su pravili zvucne jedinice. Moja zelja da vidim T/S ni na koji nacin ne predstavlja zamerku konstruktorima. Ne postoje dobri ili losi T/S parametri. U svakom slucaju evo jednog dokumenta iz 1932. godine iz Bell labaratorija gde se lepo vide razmisljanja ljudi iz te ere. Reklo bi se da su i onu umeli da koriste matematiku i matematicke modele, zar ne? Verujem da su imali i poneki instrument, doduse ne iz Kine. Bell_US1869178.pdf
  36. 4 poena
  37. 4 poena
    Tri tenisera koje publika najvise voli: 1. FEDERER 2. NADAL 3. Onog koji igra protiv Djokovica
  38. 4 poena
    drVelinov

    Čime se zanimam... (ovih dana )

  39. 4 poena
    revox

    E88CC / 6N23P EV kvalitetne marke ?

    I rezultat ovo a bilo ovako
  40. 4 poena
    Woland

    Ne može to bez kabla - (radio?) emisija/podcast

    @Srecko mojne Wolanda, ja sam hodajuća antireklama za hifi, ne verujem u: kablove (pa ni USB), osigurače, konektore (čak ni strujne), podloške za kablove (i konektore), ne tretiram prostoriju ničim osim duvanskim dimom, ne slušam audiofilska izdanja (a kad ih slušam stid me je od sebe), družim se sa boljima od sebe (tako mi mama rekla da treba) bezuspešno pokušavajući da ih svedem na sebi razumljivu meru, ne pričam o hifi, o toj emisiji nemam nikakav stav pošto nikad nisam odslušao ni jednu (radije nešto pročitam, pogledam ili slušam), a slušam nekakvu opskurnu muziku, u kojoj pronalazim sve drugo osim svilenih visokih i baršunastih srednjih - valjda je jasno da nisam audiofil [emoji4]
  41. 4 poena
    Doktor

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    Nesto ovako npr.
  42. 4 poena
    чика-Брка

    Novopridosle skalamerije

    uzeo danas od Ivaila. 4P1L 4 komada 6N6P 4 komada 5C3S 1 komad i dve vintage sijalice za indikaciju
  43. 4 poena
    mrcelavi

    Philips sirokopojasni

    Polaziš od predpostavke da samim stavljanjem tog drajvera u neku kutiju dobiješ solidan zvuk. Ok, možda i uspe ali... Moj ti je savet ili da se držiš nekog razrađenog projekta baš za taj zvučnik ili da slušaš (bukvalno) ono što ti starije čike (starije ne po godinama već po stažu) govore. Previše kompromisa vodi znaš već gde. Ono u šta sam se i sam uverio je da ti stari Philips drajveri najbolje sviraju bez kutija ali i gore i dole mora pomoć. Ako ti išta pomogne evo kako sam ih ja uposlio.
  44. 4 poena
    Vix

    Čime se zanimam... (ovih dana )

  45. 4 poena
    Mikorist

    Zanimljive i smesne slike

  46. 4 poena
    Zen Mod

    Kafanica . . .

    e cak i Mikumu dojadi politicarenje , pa je zakljucao kafanu i otisao na pecanje kad se vrne, ce otkljuca ako u medjuvremenu mu ne ispade kljuc u vodu
  47. 4 poena
    Aleks

    Kafanica . . .

    Ma nee.... sve su prebacili u Hravatsku i Sloveniju. Ova sličica je premala da bi na njoj stalo sve... samo deo... Nego, iznova i iznova lako i brzo zaboravljamo, sve, prelako pljujemo, a još lakše "montiramo" istoriju. Da li je bio diktator, pa verovatno po nekim merilima jeste, da li se loše živelo? Pa nije.
  48. 4 poena
    ManicP

    Kafanica . . .

    Menščini da je posle Broza u Srbistanu ostala po neka fabrika, možda i više neg što ih sad ima.
  49. 4 poena
    Zen Mod

    Fane Sovereign 15-300 TC

    Speaker Bonus, Pax in Domus
  50. 4 poena
    paja959

    Trenutno na gramofonu ...

    sve na 12h,ja takodje...Hooker...
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